Type of Investment


Project Stage


Length of Investment

2023 - 2025


Investment Overview

The Learning Initiative on Norms, Exploitation and Abuse (LINEA) works to prevent age-disparate transactional sex at the individual and community social norms levels through a flagship radio drama and concurrent educational curricula for both girls and older men. GIF’s pilot grant to AGO is to support scale-readiness for LINEA.


The Development Challenge

ADTS is defined as sex exchanged for material support between girls under the age of 18 and men that are more than 10 years older. So, while ADTS exists on a spectrum of coercion, it is always considered sexual violence. With that, it also has far-ranging negative impacts on a girl’s health, education, and life outcomes such as higher risk of HIV infection or school-drop out due to early pregnancy. Climate shocks, such as droughts and flood exacerbate the situation as girls turn to ADTS as a coping mechanism. Despite this, few interventions have addressed ADTS as a primary outcome. While a wide range of motivations drive ADTS, underlying social norms play a key role in sustaining the practice.


The Innovation

LINEA uses an innovative gender and social norms lens to tackle ADTS through a radio drama, “Mschiana wa Kati”, or “Girl in the Middle”, and concurrent educational curricula sessions with both girls and men. The radio drama, with locally relevant characters and storylines, serves to engage whole communities in critical reflection on drivers and prevention of ADTS. The curricula draw on and reinforce this messaging by targeting attitude and behaviour change with at-risk girls and, separately, high risk men. LINEA has been co-developed by AGO, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the National Institute of Medical Research(NIMR) in Tanzania. Informed by formative research and rigorous feasibility testing including a quasi-experimental evaluation of the radio drama, LINEA holds promise to reduce ADTS as a stand-alone or add-on innovation to existing programming.


Our Investment

GIF provided a pilot grant of $230,000 in 2023 to support AGO’s long-run vision to scale LINEA nationally in Tanzania. Our grant sits alongside ongoing implementation of LINEA under a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with the LSHTM and NIMR and intends to de-risk and prepare for future scale-up of the intervention. Working towards this vision with our grant, AGO is preparing a scale readiness plan and building up capacity to support such a scale up of LINEA with fidelity, once results from the RCT are available.


Amani Girls in Numbers

2.5 x

Girls are more likely to contract HIV than their male peers in Southern and Eastern Africa


The percentage of teenagers who have had a child or are pregnant in Tanzania Mainland